AbstractAn empirical analysis was undertaken to quantify the utilization of the primary, first-generation agriculture and forestry feedstocks within the industrial bioeconomy. Institutional policies and incentives, and their role in driving the bioeconomy are also explored. In doing so, we present a detailed analysis of global agricultural and roundwood forestry production, including both intermediate and final uses. In addition to deciphering the internal flows of commodities within the bioeconomy, we present the spatial distribution of key industrial bioeconomy feedstock crops and their influence within the global economy, including flows in exportation and importation across ten geographical regions. Finally, along with the many advantages for industrial biofeedstocks, there are also environmental trade-offs. The results from this examination will equip researchers, industries, and governments with a superior ability to address the multi-dimensional feedbacks and synergies of the bioeconomy, as well as predict potential areas of risk and those that may prosper from future production increases.