AbstractPoplar is a fast-growing tree with a short cultivation time; however, there are some disadvantages to poplar such as its low density and low dimensional stability. The aim of this work was to study the physical and chemical performance of poplar wood treated by its impregnation with functional composite modifiers followed by compression drying. The results showed that this approach not only significantly increased the dimensional stability of the wood but also enhanced its bending strength and compressive strength parallel to the wood grain. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that the intensity of the hydroxyl (-OH) and carbonyl (C=O) absorption peaks decreased, which provided evidence that the –NHCH2OH of the modifier reacted with the wood’s carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. The position of the XRD peaks did not change, which indicated that the crystallinity structure of cellulose was not noticeably affected by chemical modification. The TGA showed that the thermal stability of the modified wood was improved, while FESEM analysis showed that the wood cell lumens and vessels were filled with chemicals.