NC State
Liu, K., He, B., Qian, L., and Li, J. (2014). "Conducting graphite/cellulose composite film as a candidate for chemical vapor-sensing material," BioRes. 9(3), 5279-5289.


A type of conductive graphite/cellulose composite film used for chemical vapor-sensing material was prepared at room temperature in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIm]Cl). Graphite was pretreated with both oxidation and reduction processes. Due to the use of N,N-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), as a covalent cross-linking agent in [BMIm]Cl, there were limited chemical bonds between the graphite and cellulose. The composite film was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XRD). When these conducting films were exposed to certain organic vapors, their electrical resistances quickly changed, showing gas sensitivity. The percolation threshold of the conducting film was about 5 wt%. The gas-sensing behavior of these films in solvent were the opposite of those gas-sensing materials based on a non-polar polymer matrix. A typical negative vapor coefficient (NVC) was observed when the film was placed in polar organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, and acetone.
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