NC State
Kim, T. Y., Kim, C. H., and Lee, H. L. (2017). "Effect of circulation time on the physical properties of currency," BioRes. 12(3), 6309-6321.


Durability is a very important property of currency and currency paper because currency is circulated in the public for a very long time. The effect of circulation time on the physical properties of currency was investigated. In addition, a crumpling treatment procedure was adopted to simulate the circulation of currency in public. The air permeance of currency that was subjected to eight rounds of crumpling treatment was compared with that of actual circulated currency. As the circulation time increased, the basis weight, thickness, air permeance, and b* value increased. On the other hand, the stiffness and the L* value decreased as the circulation time increased. Regarding the air permeance, the slope of the plot was greater than the slopes of other physical properties measured. Air permeance of the samples after the crumpling treatment was greater than that of the circulated currency, which indicated that the crumpling process resulted in more severe changes in air permeance than the crumpling that occurs during the actual circulation of currency.

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