AbstractA novel, efficient, and direct blend of solvents, tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide (TBAA/DMSO), was used for the dissolution and regeneration of bamboo pulp. Regenerated fibers were successfully prepared by a wet spinning process. The bamboo pulp without any pretreatment was readily soluble in the solvent under mild conditions. The dissolution process was observed using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Rheological properties of the cellulose solutions at various concentrations were investigated. The regenerated fibers prepared by coagulation in ethanol were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and an electronic tensile tester. The SEM images showed that the regenerated fibers possessed a smooth surface and circular cross-section, and the XRD and FT-IR results revealed that the fibers exhibited a cellulose II structure. The thermostability and mechanical properties of the fibers was also investigated.