AbstractRubber seed shell (RSS) was modified by grafting treatment using glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) at various concentrations. The RSS was then used to reinforce high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The effects of modification on the mechanical, water absorption, and thermal properties of the RSS/HDPE composites were studied using a mechanical testing instrument, weighing method, Vicat softening temperature (VST) testing, thermogravimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. The results showed that the GMA grafting produced an improvement in the flexural and tensile properties of the composites. The water absorption rate of the composites also had an obvious decrease. While a slight increase in VST was found, the various concentrations of GMA showed no improvement in VST. GMA modification also could elevate the thermal stability of the composites at the initial decomposition stage. The optimum grafting concentration of GMA (2.5%) led to the lowest thermal weight loss (37.07% and 26.56%) during the first and second decomposition stages. The E’ values of the composites had a significant increase with the addition of GMA. There were two peaks of tan δ for the untreated samples, but the modified samples exhibited a shift in the transition peak at higher temperatures; moreover, the second peak disappeared.