Wood-based panels, which are often used and then abandoned, are a potential resource for energy recovery. To better understand the pyrolysis of wood-based panels, the effect of urea formaldehyde (UF) resin on the pyrolysis of the wood components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) was investigated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and an ultimate analysis were used to investigate the pyrolysis process and products of the biomass components mixed with 10% UF resin. The UF resin specifically inhibited the decomposition rate of cellulose and promoted the thermal decomposition of lignin. For xylan, the UF resin had little impact. The UF resin mainly affected the mass loss of C and O. Loss of both elements in lignin was promoted, but only C loss increased in cellulose. The nitric gases generated from the pyrolysis mixtures were HCN and NH3, and N from the UF resin tended to transform into NH3. Influence of the UF resin on the pyrolysis liquids was mainly seen on the N compounds. With the addition of the UF resin, more nitrogenous compounds were detected in the pyrolysis liquids. The relative contents of nitrogenous compounds in the pyrolysis liquids from cellulose and lignin were 12.8% and 64.3%, respectively.