AbstractTo reduce the refining energy consumption of chemi-mechanical pulping, treatment with NaOH-thiourea-urea aqueous solution was studied in this work. By means of single-factor experiments, the effects of alkali dosage, soaking time, and freezing time were evaluated. It was found that the optimal conditions were an alkali dosage of 8%, soaking time of 45 min, and freezing time of 105 min. The results revealed that refining energy consumption could be reduced by approximately 40% under optimal conditions compared with that of alkaline peroxide mechanical pulp, while other pulping or paper-making properties were similar. There were no significant effects on the structure of the functional groups, the crystalline region of the pulp, or the whole structure of the treated wood chips. However, damage to single wood fibers on the chips treated in NaOH-thiourea-urea aqueous solution was more obvious.