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Kangas, H., Hakala, T. K., Tamminen, T., Määttänen, M., Rovio, S., Liitiä, T., and Poppius-Levlin, K. (2015). "Optimisation of acetic acid lignofibre organosolv process," BioRes. 10(2), 2699-2718.

Abstract

Birch wood chips were cooked in acetic acid in the presence of phosphinic acid according to the Lignofibre (LGF) organosolv process. The cooking trials were performed according to an experimental design with process time, temperature, and the presence (or absence) of alkaline pre-extraction as the factors. Delignification was enhanced by increased temperature and alkaline pre-extraction. Alkaline extraction also limited xylose hydrolysis, as well as the further degradation of xylose into furfural. Degradation and condensation reactions began to take place between dissolved carbohydrates and lignin at higher temperatures and longer cooking times. Formation of pseudolignin, most likely because of reactions between lignin and furfural, was also observed under the harshest cooking conditions. To avoid these unwanted side-reactions, minimise viscosity losses, and preserve the yield, the LGF process time should be limited to 3 to 4 h at 150 °C.
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