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BioResources
Wang, S., Chen, F., and Song, X. (2015). "Preparation and characterization of lignin-based membrane material," BioRes. 10(3), 5596-5606.

Abstract

Lignin-based membrane material was prepared from lignosulfonate extracted from sulfite pulping. The effects of formaldehyde, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), urea, borax, glutaraldehyde (GD), and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) on tensile strength and water absorption were investigated. The experimental results showed that the optimum conditions were as follows: a reaction temperature of 85 °C, 22.22 wt.% lignosulfonate, 1.59 wt.% borax, 22.22 wt.% urea, 31.75 wt.% formaldehyde, 22.22 wt.% PVA, 32.32 wt.% GD (to PVA glue), and 32.32 wt.% DMP (to PVA glue). Under these conditions, the tensile strength reached 2.2 ×104 Pa and the water absorption was 35.2%. The products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the product components were compatible in this system, and the introduction of cross-linking agents may have resulted in a decrease in pore size.
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