NC State
Jiang, Y., Xv, X., Liu, D., Yang, Z., Zhang, Q., Shi, H., Zhao, G., and Zhou, J. (2018). "Preparation of cellulose nanofiber-reinforced gelatin hydrogel and optimization for 3D printing applications," BioRes. 13(3), 5909-5924.


Gelatin (GEL) obtained from animals is famous for its biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, its poor mechanical properties limits possible applications as bio-inks to fabricate tissue scaffolds through three-dimensional (3D) printing. In this work, a high strength hydrogel based on cellulose nanofibers and GEL (CNF/GEL) was designed for 3D printing. Scanning electron microscopy and breaking strength results indicated that a CNF filling content of 10% was the best content in the CNF/GEL hydrogels. The rheological properties of the samples with different solid contents were investigated, and the 10%-CNF/GEL-5 hydrogel was proposed for 3D printing. Then, a printing strategy with optimal conditions, including a crosslinking procedure for obtaining a 3D scaffold, was proposed. The biocompatibility of G-10%-CNF/GEL-5 was also investigated using CCK-8 and Hoechst 33342/PI double-staining assays. These results confirmed that the 10%-CNF/GEL-5 composite hydrogel has potential to be used as a 3D bio-ink for application in tissue repair.

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