With the improvement of living standards, the human demand for antibacterial materials has increased. Cellulose, as the most abundant polymer in the world, is natural, biodegradable, and renewable, which makes it a promising raw material for the production of antibacterial materials. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-cellulose antibacterial composites exhibit good biocompatibility and antimicrobial properties. These materials are easily degraded chemically and are environmentally friendly. Therefore, the AgNPs-cellulose antibacterial composites exhibit broad utilization prospects in environmental protection, medicine, chemical catalysis, and other fields. Several methods are used to manufacture such materials. This paper reviews three common techniques: the physical method, the in situ chemical reduction method, and the covalent bonding method. The differences and relationships are identified, and the advantages and disadvantages are compared among these three methods. Lastly, the present situation and the development potential of the AgNPs-cellulose antibacterial composites are discussed in this review.