The dielectric properties of poplar wood (Populus deltoids cv. I-69/55) were measured using an Agilent network analyzer over the frequency range from 0.2 GHz to 20 GHz. The effects of moisture content, grain direction, temperature, and frequency on the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor of wood were investigated. Regression equations were also established to predict the dielectric properties of wood having different grain directions and moisture contents. Results showed that the dielectric properties were strongly affected by the moisture content. As the moisture content increased from 0% to 100%, the dielectric constants of wood at longitudinal, radial, and tangential directions increased by 820.2%, 403.0%, and 434.0%, loss factors of wood at three directions increased by 8631%, 4949%, and 3404%, respectively. As frequency was increased, dielectric constant of wood decreased slowly; however, the loss factor decreased at the beginning and then increased. Dielectric properties of the wood also increased with increasing temperature. The dielectric constant in longitudinal directions was 1.2 times higher than the constant at tangential and radial directions, but the loss factor was 1.4 to 2.5 times higher. Regression equations were determined to fully describe the dielectric properties of wood at different grain dimensions and moisture contents.