AbstractDendrocalamus brandisii is an edible bamboo species found in Southwest China and South Asia. However, there is limited information about the anatomical and chemical information of its culms for its utilization and processing. In this paper, the anatomical and chemical properties of different age culms were determined. There are three vascular bundle types found in its culms. The radial length-to-tangential diameter ratio of vascular bundles varied with culm zone but did not vary with age. The outer diameter of metaxylem vessels showed a similar trend. The fiber length (L), wall thickness (W), and Runkel ratio increased with age, while the fiber length-to-outer diameter ratio (L/D) and lumen diameter (Ld) decreased with age. The chemical properties of D. brandisii also differed with age class and height. The holocellulose and ash content decreased from age 1 to 2 years and then increased at year 3. The acid-insoluble lignin, alcohol-toluene extractives, and silica contents increased with age class, whereas the acid-soluble lignin exhibited the opposite trend. The fiber length and L/D values of D. brandisii suggest it would be suitable material for pulp fibers, but its lignin content was relatively high compared with other bamboo species.