NC State
  • Researchpp 7294-7309Kim, T., and Kim, T. (2018). "Consecutive recovery of non-structural sugars and xylooligomers from corn stover using hot water and acidified calcium chloride," BioRes. 13(4), 7294-7309.AbstractArticlePDF

    Corn stover, which has a high non-structural sugar content, was treated by two-stage fractionation using water and acidified CaCl2 for the consecutive recovery of non-structural sugars and xylooligomers. In this process, water treatment under mild conditions (60 °C to 140 °C) was used for the recovery of non-structural sugars in the first stage, followed by the recovery of xylooligomers using acidified CaCl2 in the second stage under severe conditions (160 °C to 180 °C). For the recovery of non-structural sugars, a water treatment at 80 °C was observed to be effective, recovering 95.6% of the non-structural sugars. With a non-structural sugar-free solid, the reaction conditions for the second stage of treatment using acidified CaCl2 were statistically optimized. The highest recovery yield of xylooligomers (72.5%) was obtained under optimum conditions (172.9 °C, 22.2 min, 4.7% CaCl2). With the two-stage fractionation process, the glucan digestibility of treated solid was enhanced from 34.0% for untreated corn stover to 91.0% for the treated solid (with 15 FPU/g-glucan).

  • Researchpp 7310-7324Ji, Y., Peng, Y., Strand, A., Fu, S., Sundberg, A., and Retulainen, E. (2018). "Fiber evolution during alkaline treatment and its impact on handsheet properties," BioRes. 13(4), 7310-7324.AbstractArticlePDF

    To understand the swelling effects of alkaline treatment on the morphological properties of fibers and physical properties of handsheets, bleached softwood kraft pulp was treated with NaOH at different concentrations. The results showed that the fiber swelling increased, but the shrinkage and elongation of the paper at a NaOH concentration of 6% or higher did not improve. Dissolution of amorphous material occurred during the treatment together with peeling reactions. The fiber length and shape factor decreased and the fines content increased with an increasing alkali concentration. The cellulose crystallinity decreased with an increasing NaOH concentration. This was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry, which also showed that some cellulose I was converted to cellulose II, especially at higher NaOH concentrations (> 9%). The fiber curl and kink indices increased and the handsheet density decreased with an increasing NaOH concentration. However, the tensile index decreased more steeply than the density with an increasing NaOH concentration, possibly because of the lower number and strength of the interfiber bonds, increased kinks, and reduced fiber strength and length. The handsheet extensibility first increased and subsequently decreased as the NaOH concentration increased, which indicated that well-controlled NaOH treatment could be used to improve the extensibility of paper.

  • Researchpp 7325-7344Nguyen, L., Do, P., Nguyen, C., Kose, R., Okayama, T., Pham, T., Nguyen, P., and Miyanishi, T. (2018). "Properties of biochars prepared from local biomass in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam," BioRes. 13(4), 7325-7344.AbstractArticlePDF

    Wood- (bamboo and melaleuca) and herbaceous-based (rice husk and water hyacinth) biochars, produced from local biomass by slow pyrolysis at 500 °C, 700 °C, and 900 °C, were examined for their physical and chemical properties. The wood-based biomass produced biochars with  lower ash contents (<14 wt.%db ash) and higher fixed carbon contents (> 54 wt.%db), greater higher heating value (>23 MJ/kg), higher degree of aromaticity (with O/C, H/C, and volatile matter/fixed carbon ratios were less than 0.08, 0.51, and 0.61, respectively), and smaller amount of salt nutrients (<76 g/kgdb) compared with those of the herbaceous-based biochars. Their unique properties have generated more interest in using them as a solid fuel, for carbon sequestration, and for soil amendment. The rice husk biochars contained more than 300 g/kgdb silica, which is potential for silicophilic plants. The water hyacinth biochars with the greatest volatile matter/fixed carbon (ranging from 0.72 to 2.35), and highest O/C ratios (0.11 to 0.18), indicating the lowest aromaticity among studied biochars and thus maybe least suitability for carbon sequestration. They also possessed a highest soluble salts content (>240 g/kgdb), highest electrical conductivity (>6489 mS/cm), and greatest liming potential (>6.56 %CaCO3–eq), which may not be suitable for salt-sensitive plants or low-buffer capacity soils.

  • Researchpp 7345-7359Pacheco, C. M., Bustos, C., Reyes, G., Aguayo, M. G., and Rojas, O. (2018). "Characterization of residues from Chilean blueberry bushes: A potential source of cellulose," BioRes. 13(4), 7345-7359.AbstractArticlePDF

    Chile is the second largest global producer of blueberries, which are harvested in the south-central region. As a result of the exponential production growth, a large amount of lignocellulosic biomass is generated from pruning and left on the ground as waste. As an alternative to the current incineration practices and their negative air pollution effects, this study proposed value-added utilization of these agroindustry residues. The chemical compositions (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives, and ash) of the pruning residues from blueberry branches and trunks were analyzed. The cellulose contents from the branches and trunks were similar at 52% and 51%, respectively. However, the X-ray diffraction analysis indicated important differences in their crystallinity index, with 52% and 84%, respectively. Compared with the cellulose obtained from the trunks, cellulose from the branches was less thermally stable, possibly due to the presence of residual lignin and hemicellulose. According to the results, it is expected that the agro-industrial residues from pruning of the Chilean blueberry bushes (branches and trunks) might be of use as a potential platform for bioproducts, such as cellulose materials in order to replace synthetic or unsustainable materials.

  • Researchpp 7360-7370Yildirim, N. (2018). "Design of adhesive-free bio-based suspended ceiling tiles using nanocellulose," BioRes. 13(4), 7360-7370.AbstractArticlePDF

    An adhesive-free, bio-based suspended ceiling tile (nanocellulose ceiling tile (NCT)) with mildew and mold resistance, fire retardancy, and water repellence was developed and compared with commercial products (M257, M266, and M935). The NCT produced the greatest contact angle values: 145.0° (1.37% coefficient of variation (CV)) on the top surface, 137.8° (2.15% CV) on the bottom surface, and 142.2° (3.41% CV) on the edges. The thermal resistivity (R-value) of the NCT was also greater (3.14 °F∙ft2∙h/BTU (1.32% CV)), so the thermal conductivity (k-value) was lower (0.046 W/(m∙K)) than the compared commercial products (M257, M266, and M935). The NCT demonstrated resistance to mildew and mold growth, with zero defacement. Each product (NCT, M257, M266, and M935) evaluated was fire retardant, with zero horizontal flame propagation. The results showed that the NCT was an advanced ceiling tile prototype treated against fire, water, and mildew and mold growth throughout its thickness, with promising results compared to current ceiling tiles on the market.

  • Researchpp 7371-7380Xu, Z., Ni, S., Yu, M., and Huang, L. (2018). "An image-based laser triangulation width model applied in sawn lumber’s external face measurement," BioRes. 13(4), 7371-7380.AbstractArticlePDF

    The yield of sawn lumber has been largely governed by the identification accuracy of the external face width. However, the traditional method cannot measure the external face width with high accuracy and low error. In view of this, an image-based laser-triangulation width measurement model was established to measure the width of sawn lumber’s external face in an effort to overcome the deficiency of the traditional method. A hypothesis was established from the theoretical model, as follows: when the laser line is cast on the external face and the reflected light is captured by the camera with a certain angle, the width resolution will be the least affected and will even depend on the resolution of the camera under precise conditions. Data from contrasting experiments suggested that a particular angle has a width-detection error 0.15% and accuracy 0.177 mm, which absolutely satisfies the need of wood industry detection online. Furthermore, this paper gives a theoretical proof of conjecture from the perspective of optical principles and mathematical analysis.

  • Researchpp 7381-7394Adam, N., and Jusoh, I. (2018). "Allometric model for predicting aboveground biomass and carbon stock of Acacia plantations in Sarawak, Malaysia," BioRes. 13(4), 7381-7394.AbstractArticlePDF

    Allometric equations estimating biomass and carbon stock for Acacia mangium in Malaysia have been developed. However, in previous studies they were obtained from small trials or experimental plots. In this study, models were proposed to quantify the aboveground biomass as well as the amounts of stored and sequestered carbon in two planting variants, namely second generation Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid plantations that were approximately 10 years old. Linear, power, exponential, and logarithmic functions were fitted for aboveground biomass using trunk diameter at breast height (DBH) as the independent variable. The best fit model for estimation of total aboveground biomass was in the form of a power function y = aDb. Application of the developed model yielded total aboveground biomasses of Acacia hybrid and second generation Acacia mangium of 113.3 Mha-1 and 178.9 Mha-1, respectively. This study indicated that 10-year-old second generation Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid had sequestered 30.8 Mha-1 and 19.5 Mha-1, respectively, of CO2 annually. This study showed that the Acacia mangium plantation plays a role as a carbon sink. Thus, these forest plantations benefit the economy and also mitigate carbon emissions.

  • Researchpp 7395-7403Li, R., Cao, P., Xu, W., Ekevad, M., and Wang, X. (2018). "Experimental and numerical study of moisture-induced stress formation in hexagonal glulam using x-ray computed tomography and finite-element analysis," BioRes. 13(4), 7395-7403.AbstractArticlePDF

    Hexagonal glue-laminated timber with large cross-sections, made from small diameter logs, was studied. Effects of relative humidity variations on the moisture-induced stresses were investigated to evaluate how the prediction model compared to a real outcome. The test samples were exposed to an environment with relative humidity variations from 80% to 30%. The moisture content inside the samples was measured via X-ray computed tomography scanning. A moisture transport and a hygro-mechanical finite element simulation model was used for the prediction of moisture content and resulting stress distribution. The results from both the test and simulation showed that the moisture content in the edge angles of the samples dropped rapidly due to a large moisture diffusion rate. The moisture gradient was generated via a different moisture transfer rate at the inner and external parts of the samples. The maximum stress perpendicular to the grain in the simulation was 8 MPa and was located at the surface near the corners. This stress peak caused cracking according to the model, which was also seen in the test samples. The results for the measured moisture content agreed with the simulated results and this indicated that the moisture transfer model was adequate for simulation.

  • Researchpp 7404-7429Casillas, R., Rodríguez, K., Cruz-Estrada, R., Dávalos-Olivares, F., Navarro-Arzate, F., and Satyanarayana, K. (2018). "Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals created from recycled Laser printed paper," BioRes. 13(4), 7404-7429.AbstractArticlePDF

    This article presents the development of a method to prepare nanocrystalline cellulose (NCCs) from laser-printed waste paper using factorial design 23 experiments by controlled acid hydrolysis of the waste paper. The method applies high gain ultrasound and subsequent flotation, washing, and bleaching stages. Characterization of the raw material, prepared pulp, test sheets, and NCCs is presented. Optimum conditions to obtain high quality NCCs were found to be 65% acid, for 40 min time of treatment, and residual load in the range of 130 to 570 mmol/kg of NCCs. The obtained NCCs were 80 to 700 nm long depending on the acid hydrolysis conditions. They exhibited high values of whiteness (90.3% Elrepho), a-cellulose contents (95%), degree of polymerization (731), viscosity (9.59 cP), and chemical compositions similar to that of Whatman paper.

  • Researchpp 7430-7444Shahroze, R., Ishak, M., Salit, M., Leman, Z., Asim, M., and Chandrasekar, M. (2018). "Effect of organo-modified nanoclay on the mechanical properties of sugar palm fiber-reinforced polyester composites," BioRes. 13(4), 7430-7444.AbstractArticlePDF

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nanoclay on the mechanical properties of sugar palm fiber-reinforced polyester composites. Organo-modified nanoclay (OMMT) was dispersed in unsaturated polyester resin at various weight contents from 1% to 5% using a mechanical stirrer. Naturally woven sugar palm fibers were reinforced in the nanoclay-modified resin, which were then hot compressed to form the composites. The effect of the OMMT weight content on the tensile, flexural, and impact properties of the composites were analyzed. The addition of OMMT resulted in a noticeable improvement in all of the investigated properties, until a certain weight percentage. The tensile properties showed the best improvements at a 2% nanoclay content. However, the 4% nanoclay content resulted in the best enhancements to the flexural and impact properties.