NC State

Authors are required to use a template (see below). The font styles, sizes, and margins need to match that of the template example for each item in the article.

Please be aware that submitted files larger than 2 MB will be rejected by the automated submission system (Open Journal Systems, or OJS). If the editable file for your submitted article is longer than this, please e-mail it directly to the editors. However, please ALSO complete the on-line submission process, even if you skip the step of uploading a document file. You will know that you are done after you have entered “Finish Submission.” At that point in the process, you will have an opportunity to select “Active files” and make note of the ID number (which will be referred to as “BioRes #####”, replacing the #’s with digits) of your submitted article. We would be very pleased if you make a practice of always including the label “BioRes #####” (with your article’s ID number replacing “#####”) in the subject line of your e-mail.

Image preparation

Figures should be embedded in the manuscript and numbered in the order in which they appear. All figure parts should be labeled (a), (b), etc. For more information, see the Article template.

Authors can ease the burden on the process of editing and reviewing by avoiding the use of excessively high-resolution graphics. When incorporating images into an article to be submitted to BioResources, it is recommended that the image files be modified, as necessary, so that no one of them has a file size larger than about 250 kB. Most image processing software provides ways to decrease file size, often by reducing the nominal size of a JPEG image, etc. Because of the default settings that are used during the creation of PDF files, the resolution of the published version usually is not affected by moderate reductions in the resolution of the original image files that are inserted into a document.

Authors are encouraged to use color graphics. There is no additional cost for color.

Peer-reviewed articles

In the case of original research articles, prospective authors are required to use the exact format exhibited in the downloadable MS Word or Open Office Writer article template documents. Just replace the title and other contents of the downloaded template document with your own title and other contents. When pasting, please use a “paste special / unformatted” sequence so that your copying does not introduce unintended changes in fonts, margins, or various auto-format settings of the software. Don’t worry about making changes to the footer that comes with the template; the editors will take care of those details. (You also can download a PDF version of the article template, but you won’t be able to edit it.) Within the text of the template, you will find further author instructions. The following is a summary. Click here to download a more detailed “Style Guide”.

Abstract length: Target 150 words; maximum 200 words

Article length: Typically 4 to 20 pages, following the required format 

Scope: Science and engineering of biomass from lignocellulosic sources for new end uses and new capabilities; examples include advances in wood science, new uses of crop residues, biofuels, biocomposites, papermaking, and chemical production that is based on plant material that contains substantial amounts of cellulose or lignin. The journal scope does not include consideration of articles dealing with food or pharmaceuticals (except as derived from lignocellulosic sources).

Audience: Please bear in mind that the likely audience will be multi-disciplinary; your work needs to be understood by scientists and specialists who may have very different backgrounds from your own.

Opinion pieces (Editorials)

The editors will have sole discretion in accepting a limited number of suitable opinion pieces, which will be called “Editorials.” These items will not be peer-reviewed. Suitable opinion pieces will be selected based on the judgment of the editors that the ideas will help to stimulate a discussion among practitioners in the field of lignocellulosic bioresources. Prospective authors should use the exact format  exhibited in the downloadable MS WORD or Open Office Writer opinion piece template document. Note that this template is different in detail from that used for peer-review articles (see previous item). A PDF version is also available to look at, but you won’t be able to use it as a template.

Length: Typically 1 to 2 pages, following the required format

Scope: We are particularly interested in opinions related to the pace, direction, and barriers to implementation of sustainable, environmentally responsible solutions to society’s needs for energy, materials, and products.

Sending a Revised Article after Peer Review

When preparing to send a revised version, please start the process by making a copy of the review reports (which will have been e-mailed to you by the editor), and insert your brief comments indicating how the authors decided to deal with each issue that was raised. Then, please use the “Review Version” of your article (which should have been returned to you) as the starting point for preparing the revised document.  We would be grateful if you would use highlighting or colored text to indicate items that are new or modified. Then, please e-mail your revised article and accompanying responses to

Review articles

The editors may either invite review articles or consider articles that are submitted without request. Review articles that appear to generally fall within the scope and other requirements of the journal will be subject to the same peer-review process discussed in the case of research articles. Authors who are planning major review articles are encouraged to contact the editors at an early stage to confirm that the topic is within the scope and interest of the journal.

Format: The required format is similar to that used for research articles, with the exception that headings such as “Experimental,” “Results and Discussion,” and “Conclusions” should be replaced with more appropriate headings, consistent with the contents of the article. Please use a downloadable review article template as an MS WORD or Open Office Writer file. You also can look at a PDF version, but you won’t be able to use it as a template.

Length: The length of review articles generally should be within 10 to 50 pages, but the literature references are not included in the page count. The editors reserve the right to waive the 50-page limit in case of reviews of unusually high quality and importance. However, it is understood that many articles can be improved in quality by shortening them.

Contact information: If questions remain that are not answered in this template document or elsewhere on the website, please feel free to contact the editors at one of the following email addresses: or

Cover Image (Optional)

Would you like to compete to have an image representing your research appear on the electronic cover of BioResources? This can be done when you are about to submit an article.  Authors have the option of choosing to submit a “cover graphic candidate” image, following instructions given below.  The editors will wait until a quarterly issue has been completed.  Then, they will select between one and six cover graphics to be included on the issue’s electronic cover, which will appear on the journal’s website.

Main criteria to be used by the editors in selecting a cover graphic to be used in a quarterly issue will include,

  1. Visual appeal and originality of the cover graphic candidate
  2. Novelty, quality, and likely impact of the corresponding article
  3. Ability of the cover graphic to convey the sense of an important idea or finding

What are your chances of having your cover graphic candidate selected?  That will depend on how many other groups of authors decide to compete. Let’s suppose (though it is not too likely) that 100% of the authors were to submit a cover graphic candidate, and let’s say that 100 of those articles happened to be published in a hypothetical future issue. Then, the rate of acceptance would be 6%.  And what if just 10 sets of authors had submitted a cover graphic candidate?  Then the rate of acceptance could be as high as 60%.

What will happen if you decide to skip the competition?  The answer is “nothing”. Submission of an optional cover graphic candidate will have no influence on whether or not an article is selected for peer review or, if so selected, whether the article will be later accepted for publication.  Therefore, by skipping the preparation of a cover graphic, you can save time and effort.  However, you might miss out on some fun and competition.

What about if an article is not accepted for publication?  In such cases the image will not be used by the journal for any purpose.

Some reasons why the editors would like to encourage some authors to submit a “cover graphic candidate” are as follows:

  1. To reward authors for their exemplary work and creativity
  2. To stimulate reader interest in the journal
  3. To generate some excitement and fun by having a small contest

Instructions and rules for preparation of an optional cover image candidate are as follows:

  1. The original should be prepared in a “landscape” field similar to that used in PowerPoint or equivalent software.  The size of the graphic should correspond to approximately the full field provided by the software.  It is recommended that the image should be relatively simple and bold, pleasant to look at in “full screen” mode, but also somewhat attractive when reduced the “thumbnail” size.
  2. Emphasis should be placed on the ability of a picture to convey a sense of an emerging concept or finding.
  3. Color images are preferred.
  4. Brief text is encouraged for brief labeling, or possibly one brief sentence, etc.  Arial bold font in the size range 28 to 48 is recommended, with the size depending on the context.  Keep in mind that the image text ought to be somewhat visible even when the image is in “thumbnail” form.
  5. Before submitting the article, convert a copy of it to “.jpg” image format.  Please check the image quality of the “.jpg” file to make sure that it is of suitable resolution to look good on a computer screen.

Image Submission

  1. During STEP FOUR of the online submission (using Open Journal Systems) please upload your cover graphic candidate as a “.jpg” file.  Only one candidate is permitted per article.
  2. If you decide later to prepare and submit a cover graphic candidate, it is recommended to send your “.jpg” file as an attachment in an e-mail, making sure that your article’s ID number appears in the subject line in the format “BioRes 1234”, where “1234” needs to be replaced by the actual ID number for your article.  Send copies to and .
  3. Note that your cover graphic candidate may also be selected to appear as a thumbnail image in the OJS table of contents and as a larger image with the abstract of your article in the OJS system.

The following are some examples to stimulate your imagination and give a sense of the range of graphics that could be prepared.  However, please keep in mind that originality is important.

Image Samples