Volume 18 Issue 3
- Researchpp 4723-4738Chang, Y., and Dai, J. (2023). “Parametric analysis on the lateral force resistance of Qing Dynasty timber frame containing stacked purlins,” BioResources 18(3), 4723-4738.AbstractArticlePDF
In ancient wooden structures of the Qing dynasty in China, stacked purlins are important longitudinal elements. In this study, a refined finite element model of a four-column timber frame containing stacked purlins was built. The effects of the fangs, spacer boards, and purlins with dovetail ends on the lateral resistance of the timber frame and the mid-span vertical deflection of the purlins were studied. The longitudinal hysteresis curve of the timber frame made up of stacked purlins was found to be S-shaped, centrally symmetrical, with a pinching effect and full at both ends. The Fangs made the greatest improvement on the lateral stiffness, displacement ductility, and total hysteresis energy consumption of the timber frame by reducing the mid-span vertical deflection of the purlins. The spacer boards contributed less to the lateral resistance of the timber frame than Fangs, but they contributed most to the reduction of the mid-span vertical deflection of the purlins. The dovetail connection at the ends of the purlins had a limited effect on reducing the lateral stiffness and ductility of the timber frame and increasing the mid-span vertical deflection of the purlins, but they significantly increased the total energy consumption of the timber frame and its energy consumption capacity.
- Researchpp 4739-4753Perçin, O., and Uzun, O. (2023). “Properties of heat-treated beech laminated veneer lumber reinforced with carbon fiber fabric,” BioResources 18(3), 4739-4753.AbstractArticlePDF
Carbon fiber fabric reinforced laminated veneer lumber (RLVL) pieces were prepared by using heat-treated beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) veneers with polyurethane (PU) adhesive as the binder. Carbon fiber fabric was tested in three different locations with solid material and non-reinforced samples (on the bottom adhesive line, upper adhesive line, and upper and bottom adhesive lines-symmetrical). Prior to the manufacture of LVL and RLVL, heat treatment was conducted in a laboratory oven at three temperatures. These temperatures were 150, 170, and 190 °C. Tests were performed on LVL and RLVL to determine their air-dried density, modulus of rupture (MOR), and modulus of elasticity in bending (MOE). Experimental test results showed that reinforcement with carbon ﬁber increased the air-dried density, MOR, and MOE. In addition, carbon fiber fabric placed symmetrically close to bottom and upper surfaces gave the highest MOR and MOE values. However, locating the carbon fiber fabric closer to the bottom surface tended to give higher mechanical properties for the reinforced LVL.
- Researchpp 4754-4770Hu, J. J., He, Z., Zhang, Q., Dang, J. T., Zhao, S. H., Yang, S., Yang, P. B., and Yan, X. Y. (2023). “Simultaneous pretreatment with ultraviolet light and alkaline H2O2 to promote enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover,” BioResources 18(3), 4754-4770.AbstractArticlePDF
Pretreatment processes are essential for the preparation of biofuels from lignocellulosic feedstocks. Based on alkaline H2O2 pretreatment, photocatalytic alkaline H2O2 pretreatment (U-AHP) was investigated to examine the effects of reaction time, alkali concentration, and H2O2 concentration on the enzymatic digestion of corn stover. The optimum process conditions were determined by orthogonal tests: 1% NaOH, 2% H2O2, and reaction time of 8 h. Under these conditions, the lignin removal efficiency of U-AHP was 90.2% and the saccharification yield was 94.7%. Furthermore, FT-IR, XRD, and SEM analyses showed that U-AHP pretreatment caused structural damage to the maize straw and increased the crystallinity of the cellulose, and it was speculated that the U-AHP pretreatment reaction was a complex mechanism, which might be a multiple synergistic reaction. This study shows that U-AHP pretreatment is a simple, green and effective method to promote lignin removal.
- Researchpp 4771-4789Neto, T. C. C., Lousada, J. L. P. C., Fontana C., Moreira, C. G., and Latorraca, J. V. F. (2023). “The influence of rainfall and temperature on radial growth of urban trees under the impact of steel industry pollution,” BioResources 18(3), 4771-4789.AbstractArticlePDF
The aim of this study was to analyze the growth rings and evaluate the effect of the urban environment on the growth of Terminalia catappa L. under intense industrial activity. At least two wood samples were obtained from each tree with an increment borer. The regions of Volta Redonda (Northwest and Southeast regions) and Resende (used as control) were established for the collection. The dendrochronological potential of T. catappa indicated sensitivity to precipitation and temperature in a more exposed urban and industrial steel pollution area because there were differences in growth when compared to an area less exposed to the same pollution. Thus, it was possible to conclude that this species has the potential to be used as a bioindicator of anthropogenic activities. In addition, the delimitation of the growth rings of the studied species contributes to the realization of future dendrochronological studies, expanding the understanding of the behavior of this species present in urban environments at different regional scales. This study reinforces the importance of rainfall and temperature in regulating radial growth in tropical forests.
- Researchpp 4790-4804Qin, Y. (2023). “Improvement of Eucalyptus urophylla wood permeability via urea treatment,” BioResources 18(3), 4790-4804.AbstractArticlePDF
To increase the loading amount of modifier in wood, a simple and universal approach was developed to improve its permeability. The generated pores in wood can be backfilled with modifiers, thereby improving the function of wood. This study aimed to improve the permeability of Eucalyptus urophylla wood using a urea solution. The wood was treated under different conditions, including urea concentration, treatment duration, and temperature, and the wood permeability before and after treatment was measured using water absorption as an indicator. The treatment temperature and solution concentration had considerable effects on the water absorption capacity of the treated wood. The treatment of eucalyptus wood with a 5% urea solution for 12 h, under normal pressure, resulted in the optimal effect; water absorption reached 40%, which was 78.9% higher than that of the untreated eucalyptus. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, component analysis, and BET analysis were performed to examine the mechanism underlying the effect of urea treatment on eucalyptus, which is as follows: a weak alkaline solution can dissolve the internal components of wood, namely, hemicellulose, lignin, and alcohol-benzene, which leads to the destruction of the microstructure of the wood and increases the number of micropores and mesopores in the wood.
- Researchpp 4805-4818Li, S., Bin, Y., Zhong, S., Wang, W., Sun, G., Zeng, Y., Chen, S., Li, Z., and Yuan, Y. (2023). “Two modified treatment methods for pretreated corn stalk and its composites with modified lignosulfonate,” BioResources 18(3), 4805-4818.AbstractArticlePDF
Effects of two different modified treatments were investigated relative to the chemical and mechanical properties of pretreated corn stalk particles and their composites prepared with a modified lignosulfonate (ML) binder. Corn stalk particles (CP) first were prepared by treating corn stalk particles with oxalic acid in ultrasonic conditions (pretreated corn stalk particles, PCP). These particles were then modified by treatment with either laccase-vanillin system with ultrasound (LU) or polyethylenimine-glutaraldehyde with ultrasound (PU), and the surface chemistries of the modified PCP and mechanical properties of LU-PCP/ML composites and PU-PCP/ML composites, such as modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), internal bonding strength (IB), 24-h thickness swelling (TS), and crystallinity were compared. Both modified treatments dramatically enhanced the mechanical properties of the composites. The MOR, MOE, and IB of the PU-PCP/ML composites were improved by up to 148%, 81%, and 62%, respectively, compared to LU-PCP/ML. Moreover, the 24-h TS of the LU-PCP/ML composites was reduced by 16%. These results show that the pretreatment method of CP and ultrasonic collaborative treatment of PCP can effectively improve the properties of its composites. Modified PCP with PU was more favorable for surface chemical and mechanical properties.
- Researchpp 4819-4833Liu, G., Ma, G., Huang, L., Chen, L., and Miao, Q. (2023). “Preparation, characterization, and application of cationic xylan-based aerogel,” BioResources 18(3), 4819-4833.AbstractArticlePDF
Adsorption is one of the most significant approaches for treatment of wastewater. An adsorbent with high mechanical strength, good renewability, and high efficiency is expected for practical applications. In this paper, a cationic xylan-based aerogel composed of xylan, polyvinyl alcohol, and agarose was fabricated to adsorb pectin, which is a typical anionic trash substance in the papermaking white water. The freeze-drying method was used to prepare the aerogel. A cationic xylan-based aerogel with high mechanical strength (34.676 MPa at 50% strain) was obtained. FT-IR results illustrated that the hydrogen bonds between three components contributed to the formation of aerogels. The addition of cationic xylan led to a slight decrease of crystallinity and thermostability of the aerogels. The maximum adsorption capacity of anionic pectin was 19.52 mg/g. Moreover, the aerogels maintained a high pectin-adsorption capacity after five recycles. This new cationic xylan-based aerogel offers potential possibilities for the development of value-added hemicellulose-based materials and the purification of papermaking white water in practical applications.
- Researchpp 4834-4849Lei, J., Liu, Z., Ren, D., Wang, S., Lei, D., Luo, J., and Lei, M. (2023). “Discrete elemental parameter calibration of stacking behavior of sugarcane tail leaf sieved material,” BioResources 18(3), 4834-4849.AbstractArticlePDF
To improve the accuracy of discrete element simulation parameters of sugarcane tail-leaf (STL) feed during dust removal and crushing, this study used a combination of physical tests and EDEM software simulations to calibrate the discrete element simulation parameters of crumbs and dust in the feed. Taking the experimental physical stacking angle (SA) as the response value, the second-order regression models of SA and significant factors were established by Plackett-Burman test, steepest climb test, and Box-Behnken test. Variance analysis and interaction effect analysis were conducted. Taking the accumulation angle of 41.27° obtained by physical experiments as the target value, the significant parameters were optimized. The optimal combination of the following parameters was obtained: tail stem-dust static friction coefficient (SFC) of 0.46, tail leaf-dust coefficient of sliding friction (COSF) of 0.205, JKR surface energy of 0.26, and dust-steel collision recovery coefficient (CRC) of 0.338. Through software simulation verification, the average value was 40.81°, and the relative error of the SA with the physical experiment was 1.13%. The results showed that the calibrated parameters are real and reliable, which can provide a theoretical reference for the design optimization of the straw crushing device, feed processing device, and other related components.
- Researchpp 4850-4865Yigit, N., Öztürk, A., Sevik, H., Özel, H. B., Kshkush, F. E. R., and Işık, B. (2023). “Clonal variation based on some morphological and micromorphological characteristics in the Boyabat (Sinop/Turkey) black pine (Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) seed orchard,” BioResources 18(3), 4850-4865.AbstractArticlePDF
Seed orchards with high hereditary qualities and the improvement studies used are of great importance. This study was carried out on individuals in a Boyabat grafted black pine seed orchard, Sinop. The morphological and micromorphological measurements of the characteristics were performed on needle samples taken from individuals, and the genetic diversity was determined on a clonal basis. According to the analysis of variance applied to the data obtained from the measurements and the morphological and micromorphological characters of the clones, it was determined that there was a significant difference among the clones at the P<0.001 confidence level. In this context, according to Duncan’s Range test, the creation of a large number of groups is an indicator of it. The highest heritability rates were obtained in needle diameter, stipule diameter, number of the dorsal stoma, and needle length characteristics.
- Researchpp 4866-4883Yin, T., Huang, X., Yao, S., and Li, G. (2023). “Thermal energy utilization of high temperature ash: Current situation and prospects,” BioResources 18(3), 4866-4883.AbstractArticlePDF
Not only is the use of waste heat an important way for companies to reduce fuel costs but it is also an important step in achieving the goal of decreasing peak carbon dioxide emissions. Solid fuels still make up a large proportion of China’s energy consumption structures, and the amount of ash generated and the remaining thermal resources are enormous. When considering coal alone, the theoretical recoverable amount of waste heat associated with the ash can be as much as 15.87 Mt of standard coal per year. An analysis of thermal energy utilization of high temperature ash (TEUHA) was conducted. It was found that the existing direct utilization method had a thermal efficiency in the range of 12% to 92%. However, the process is complicated, and the heat carrier is susceptible to contamination. Indirect utilization could avoid pollution issues, but heat loss was severe and maximum thermal efficiency was calculated as only 59%. Combined with the waste heat characteristics of the ash and the heat demand, a “Point-Point” model of TEUHA using phase-change materials as the heat carrier is proposed. This approach not only avoids ash pollution to the thermal environment, but it also increases the energy harvesting efficiency and realizes a high-quality utilization of thermal energy.