NC State
  • Editorialpp 2003-2006Garbowski, T. (2024). “Revolutionizing corrugated board production and optimization with artificial intelligence,” BioResources 19(2), 2003-2006.AbstractArticlePDF

    In the field of corrugated board production and packaging optimization, the advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has initiated a paradigm shift. This paper presents a brief analysis of AI’s role in revolutionizing both the production of corrugated board and the design of corrugated packaging. It explores the integration of AI in the homogenization process of complex corrugated board structures into single-layer, shallow shell-based computational models, aiming to improve and accelerate load-bearing calculations. This work presents also how AI’s predictive and analytical capabilities are pivotal in achieving efficiency, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness in the corrugated board industry.

  • Editorialpp 2007-2009Hubbe, M. A., and Savithri, D.  (2024). “Cellulose fibers as a trendsetter for the circular economy that we urgently need,” BioResources 19(2), 2007-2009.AbstractArticlePDF

    Picking up a discarded can or bottle and placing it in a recycling bin may seem like a very small step to take in the direction of making a better world. The scope of benefits that might accrue, by combining many such steps, and making careful plans, was highlighted in a recent Waste to Advanced Resources Matter (WARM) workshop hosted at this university. As shown during the discussions at the workshop, those who are deeply involved with issues of waste management, climate change issues, and care for our planet already know the “broad brush” answers regarding what needs to be done. Now is the time for action in implementing efficient and widespread recovery of valuable materials and energy from what we presently throw away.

  • Editorialpp 2010-2012Wang, Q., and Feng, X. (2024). “High-strength engineered biomaterials study and development needs in China,” BioResources 19(2), 2010-2012.AbstractArticlePDF

    Engineered biomaterials play a crucial role in the construction industry. The study and development of engineered biomaterials with high-strength are necessary to fulfill the construction requirements for medium and high-rise buildings and long-span bridges. Further promoting the localization of high-strength engineered biomaterials is crucial in terms of reducing CO2 emissions, effectively utilizing land resources, and taking into account the unique structure of forest resources in China. The goal of this modification is to satisfy the rising demand for eco-friendly living spaces.

  • Editorialpp 2013-2016Blanco, A. (2024). “The role of Open Science in our research,” BioResources 19(2), 2013-2016.AbstractArticlePDF

    This editorial considers Open Science, what it is, what are its potential benefits, what are the pillars of engagement upon which it rests, and what are some of the main challenges facing its further adoption by research communities. At its core, Open Science involves sharing not only the contents of a traditional research article, but also of any source data and methodologies upon which the reported findings are based. Though some extra work may be required, usually without anyone providing additional resources to do that work, continuous developments in digital technology are making Open Science easier to implement. While not all data is suitable to be shared, Open Science practices are widely supported within the wider research community and funding organizations.

  • Researchpp 2017-2028Yasar S. S., Komut, O., Yasar, M., and Fidan, M. S. (2024). “Noise as a physical risk factor in furniture industry machines,” BioResources 19(2), 2017-2028.AbstractArticlePDF

    This study aimed to determine the risk level of noise, which is an important physical risk, in small and medium-sized furniture industry enterprises. The noise levels of the circular sawing machines, edge banding machines, and mitre cutting machines, which are among the main processing machines of the sector, were measured. The study was carried out in 32 furniture businesses. The possible risks of noise on the operators of the machines in question and other employees were evaluated. Noise level measurements were made with the help of TESTO 815 measuring device. Dunnett’s T3 test was used to detect differences in noise levels for machine operators and other employees. It was determined that the edge banding machine does not pose an occupational health and safety risk in terms of noise risk factors. However, the mitre cutting machine and the circular sawing machine pose a risk for the machine operator in active production by creating noise above the established exposure limit value. The mitre cutting machine carries the same risk for the machine operator when it is in operation but in passive production. The results revealed the need for personal protective equipment for machine operators for mitre cutting and circular sawing machine.

  • Researchpp 2029-2044Myeong, S., and Yun, J. (2024). “Culture of Trichoderma sp. with biochar to produce high-activity cellulase in a laboratory,” BioResources 19(2), 2029-2044.AbstractArticlePDF

    Biochar (BC) was used in Trichoderma sp. culture to produce high-activity cellulase on a laboratory scale. The biochar was added into the flask before being applied to the fermenter to identify the enhancement effect and to determine the best amount of addition and the most suitable incubation period. Cellulase production was performed with a working volume of 4 L, and enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted to evaluate the saccharification ability of the enzyme. During incubation, the activities of three enzymes (Endoglucanase (EG), β-glucosidase (BGL), and cellobiohydrolase (CBH)) were measured for three days, and the cellulase activity was determined using a filter paper unit (FPU). In flask scale, EG, BGL, and CBH activities were increased by 1.4, 2.1, and 1.8 folds, respectively, and the incubation period was shortened by adding BC. In the fermenter scale, EG, BGL, and CBH activities were noticeably enhanced by 12.1, 5.8, and 7.2 folds, respectively, and FPU was 42.1 (9.8 folds). Additionally, the conversion rates of cellulose and steam exploded softwood and hardwood were 109.4%, 75.4%, and 87.3%, which were similar to a commercial enzyme (Cellic CTecⅡ). This study demonstrated that biochar could be used to produce high-activity cellulase in a shorter period and suggests a novel method for effective cellulase production.

  • Researchpp 2045-2066Miao, Y., Yan, S., and Xu, W. (2024). “The study of children’s preferences for the design elements of learning desks based on AHP-QCA,” BioResources 19(2), 2045-2066.AbstractArticlePDF

    Children’s study tables are an integral part of a child’s learning life.  Consumers are often attracted to their styling when deciding on the use and purchase of a children’s study desk. This study focused on consumption preference for the styling of children’s study desks and delved into the factors that influence these preferences. An important aspect of this research is to understand how different shapes of children’s desks influence consumer preferences through morphological analysis. The study breaks down these desks into six different parts based on morphological analysis: backplane, bookshelves, desktop, cabinet, drawer, and table legs. Through a hierarchical analysis (AHP) and pairwise comparisons, the study created a hierarchy of preferred morphological elements. The hierarchy ranked the importance of each element in influencing consumption preference, revealing the order of preference from backsplash to table legs. In addition, by integrating personal interviews and employing Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), this study provides insights into the most preferred components –  backplane and bookshelves. This integrated approach revealed a preference for desks with curved backsplashes and multi-tiered functional shelves, which was ultimately validated by successfully combining weighted rankings of specific component styles.

  • Researchpp 2065-2076Sinin, A. E., Hamdan, S., Mohamad Said, K. A., Abdullah, S., and Musib, A. F. (2024). “Gendang Melayu Sarawak (GMS) – Sarawak Malay Drum, the dying and forgotten tradition,” BioResources 19(2), 2065-2076.AbstractArticlePDF

    This work was conducted using the Picoscope signal extraction procedure, which revealed significant insights regarding the belian wood and its application in Gendang Melayu Sarawak (GMS) production. The amplitude of belian wood GMS signal remains constant, allowing it to sustain its timbre for a longer duration compared to durian wood GMS using the same procedure. Considering that the dimensions of the big belian (BB) and big durian (BD) GMS are almost the same, both GMS yield almost the same note, i.e. G1# (51.9 Hz). Considering that the dimensions of both the small belian (SB) and small durian (SD) GMS are almost the same, both GMS yield almost similar note, i.e. F3 (174 Hz) and E3 (164 Hz). Although both BB and BD showed consistent harmonics, BD only displays 2 harmonics. The SB and SD both display consistent harmonics. Both BB and BD showed pleasing tonal qualities. These occurred due to the closeness of the principal overtones to the consonant interval.


  • Researchpp 2077-2091Yılmaz, B., Deniz, I., Fazlı, H., Gürsoy, S., Yarıcı, T., and Bengü, B. (2024). “Synthesis of iso-amyl ester rosin and its evaluation as an alternative to paraffin in medium density fiberboard production,” BioResources 19(2), 2077-2091.AbstractArticlePDF

    Iso-amyl ester rosin was synthesized and investigated for its potential utilization in medium density fiberboard (MDF) production. The isoamyl alcohol, the main starting material for the synthesis of isoamyl ester rosin, was obtained through the fractional distillation of fusel oil, a byproduct of bioethanol production. The optimum condition for the iso-amyl ester rosin synthesis was determined as: rosin (165 mmol), isoamyl alcohol (413 mmol), P-TSA/rosin 1.5% (w/w), and commercial additive/rosin 0.15% (w/w). The esterification reaction was followed by FT-IR and mass analysis. For MDF production, a water-repellent material, commercial paraffin (1.5% w/w relative to the dry fiber weight), iso-amyl ester rosin (1.5% and 2.0%; w/w), and unmodified rosin (1.5% and 2.0% w/w) were separately used. In addition, fresh wood fibers, 10% w/w urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesive (relative to the total dry fiber weight), and a 25% aqueous solution of ammonium chloride (as the hardening agent for the UF adhesive, at 0.5% w/w based on the solid adhesive content) were used. MDFs underwent various physical and mechanical tests. Isoamyl ester rosin showed promising results based on the analysis. The results showed that the isoamyl ester rosin can be considered as an alternative to paraffin in sustainable and environmentally friendly MDF production.

  • Researchpp 2092-2105Krajewski, A., Bilski, P., Witomski, P., and Bobiński, P. (2024). “Assessment of the ability for early detection of newly hatched larvae of Hylotrupes bajulus L. using the acoustic emission method in Scots pine wood,” BioResources 19(2), 2092-2105.AbstractArticlePDF

    The acoustic emission analysis method was used to determine the activity of very young Hylotrupes bajulus larvae in their long-term development. In the laboratory conditions the simulated scenario of a fresh, intense infestation inside the construction wood was evaluated. The sounds generated by the insects during their feeding on the wooden samples were processed by the measurement system, which was able to detect and count the larva-originated sound pulses and calculate related energy. So far, no one has examined possibilities of detecting infant larvae of Hylotrupes bajulus L. This work is a continuation of research on the influence of the insect mass on its AE-based detection. The experiments performed with multiple wood samples analyzed through the period of one year have shown dependency between the mass of the larva and the intensity of the sound generated by them. The moment of the earliest possible detection of infestation in the wooden structure was evaluated. In the appropriate conditions (large number of young larvae inside the wood and optimal temperature) the insects reach the mass of tens of mg, which makes them detectable using the AE method.



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