NC State
  • Researchpp 1301-1310Mukhopadhyay, S., and Chatterjee, N. C. (2010). "Bioconversion of water hyacinth hydrolysate into ethanol," BioRes. 5(2), 1301-1310.AbstractPDF
    The fast growing aquatic weed water hyacinth, which is available almost year-round in the tropics and subtropics, was utilized as the chief source of cellulose for production of fuel ethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Fungal cellulases produced on-site by utilizing acid-alkali pretreated water hyacinth as the substrate were used as the crude enzyme source for hydrolysis of identically pretreated biomass. Four different modes of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were trialed in the present study for optimization of the yield of ethanol. Two common yeasts viz., Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pachysolen tannophilus, were used for fermentation of hexose and pentose sugars in the hydrolysate. Significant enhancement of concentration (8.3 g/L) and yield (0.21 g/g) of ethanol was obtained through a prefermentation hydrolysis-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PH-SSF) process, over the other three processes viz., separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), and single batch bioconversion (SBB) by utilizing fungal culture broth with and without filtration as crude enzyme source.
  • Reviewpp 1311-1325Bajpai, P. K. (2010). "Solving the problems of recycled fiber processing with enzymes," BioRes. 5(2), 1311-1325.AbstractPDF
    The pulp and paper industry has started applying new, ecologically sound technology (biotechnology) in its manufacturing processes. Many interesting enzymatic applications have been proposed. Implemented technologies tend to change the existing industrial process as little as possible. Enzymes have great potentials in solving many problems associated with the use of recycled fiber, especially related to deinking, drainability, hornification, refining, and stickies. Based on the promising results of mill-scale trials, several mills in the world have started using enzymes for deinking. The potentials of cellulase enzymes have also been demonstrated for reducing the energy requirement in pulp refining, improving the machine runnability and stickies control when using recycled fiber. They have the important benefits in that they can be considered a “green” product. They are natural occurring compounds with little adverse impact on the environment. This paper deals with the importance of recycling of paper, problems associated with the recycling, and potentials of enzymes in solving these problems. A few case studies have also been included.


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