NC State
  • Researchpp 1292-1300Kumar, S., Upadhyaya, J. S., and Negi, Y. S. (2010). "Preparation of nanoparticles from corn cobs by chemical treatment methods," BioRes. 5(2), 1292-1300.AbstractPDF
    In order to prepare nanoparticles, corn cobs were treated with sodium hydroxide in the range 0-6 mole/litre (0-24% of sodium hydroxide on oven dry basis) at 165 oC for 1.5 h at a liquor to solid ratio of 4.5:1. The sample obtained at the optimised condition (4.5 mole/litre) was washed with deionised water, disintegrated, and filtered through 80 mesh screens. Powder thus obtained was delignified by acidified sodium chlorite and dried in a vacuum oven to constant weight. Dried powder was further separated by 270 mesh screens. An average particle size approximately equal to 22 nm was observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Its crystallinity was determined by XRD analysis. The aggregated particle size was observed in the micron range by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
  • Reviewpp 1311-1325Bajpai, P. K. (2010). "Solving the problems of recycled fiber processing with enzymes," BioRes. 5(2), 1311-1325.AbstractPDF
    The pulp and paper industry has started applying new, ecologically sound technology (biotechnology) in its manufacturing processes. Many interesting enzymatic applications have been proposed. Implemented technologies tend to change the existing industrial process as little as possible. Enzymes have great potentials in solving many problems associated with the use of recycled fiber, especially related to deinking, drainability, hornification, refining, and stickies. Based on the promising results of mill-scale trials, several mills in the world have started using enzymes for deinking. The potentials of cellulase enzymes have also been demonstrated for reducing the energy requirement in pulp refining, improving the machine runnability and stickies control when using recycled fiber. They have the important benefits in that they can be considered a “green” product. They are natural occurring compounds with little adverse impact on the environment. This paper deals with the importance of recycling of paper, problems associated with the recycling, and potentials of enzymes in solving these problems. A few case studies have also been included.