Volume 7 Issue 4
- Reviewpp 5995-6040Paulsson, M., and Parkås, J. (2012). "Review: Light-induced yellowing of lignocellulosic pulps – Mechanisms and preventive methods," BioRes. 7(4), 5995-6040.AbstractArticlePDF
This review will focus on recent progress regarding the mechanisms of light-induced discoloration of mechanical and chemimechanical pulps and on the proposed preventive treatments. It is evident that the mechanisms behind photoyellowing of lignin-rich pulps are complex and that several types of reaction pathways may coexist. Photoyellowing proceeds via one initial fast phase and a slower following phase. The fast phase has been ascribed to oxidation of free phenolic groups and/or hydroquinones and catechols to photoproducts of mainly quinonoid character. A multitude of reactions involving several lignin subunits are possible. Important intermediates are phenoxyl radicals, and to some extent ketyl radicals. The importance of the phenacyl aryl ether pathway might be more important than previously thought, even though the original content of such groups is low in lignin. Even though many preventive methods against photoyellowing have been suggested, no cost-efficient treatment is available to hinder photoreversion of lignin-containing paper permanently. Suggested methods for stabilization include chemical modification (etherification and esterification), coating the paper product, addition of radical scavengers, excited state quenchers, or ultraviolet absorbing compounds.
- Reviewpp 6041-6076Valto, P., Knuutinen, J., and Alén, R. (2012). "Overview of analytical procedures for fatty and resin acids in the papermaking process," BioRes. 7(4), 6041-6076.AbstractArticlePDF
This review describes the role of wood extractives, especially fatty and resin acids, in papermaking, as well as the importance of their removal from process waters. One of the main aims is also to illustrate versatile analysis methods for this purpose and highlight recent developments in corresponding applications. Most of the current methods require time-consuming and laborious sample pretreatment procedures prior to gas chromatography coupled either with flame ionization or mass selective detection. However, some faster, even online techniques with minimum sample pretreatment, are also available, mainly including high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The advantages and disadvantages of all analytical procedures are briefly discussed.
- Reviewpp 6077-6108Pönni, R., Vuorinen, T., and Kontturi, E. (2012). "Proposed nano-scale coalescence of cellulose in chemical pulp fibers during technical treatments," BioRes. 7(4), 6077-6108.AbstractArticlePDF
This review summarizes the proposed mechanisms for irreversible coalescence of cellulose microfibrils within fibers during various common industrial treatments for chemical pulp fibers as well as the methods to evaluate it. It is a phenomenon vital for cellulose accessibility but still under considerable debate. The proposed coalescence mechanisms include irreversible hydrogen bonding. Coalescence is induced by high temperature and by the absence of obstructing molecules, such as water, hemicelluloses, and lignin. The typical industrial processes, in the course of which nano-scale coalescence and possible aggregation of cellulose microfibrillar elements occurs, are drying and chemical pulping. Coalescence reduces cellulose accessibility and therefore, in several instances, the quality of cellulose as a raw material for novel products. The degree of coalescence also affects the processing and the quality of the products. For traditional paper-based products, the loss of strength properties is a major disadvantage. Some properties lost during coalescence can be restored to a certain extent by, e.g., beating. Several factors, such as charge, have an influence on the intensity of the coalescence. The evaluation of the phenomenon is commonly conducted by water retention value measurements. Other techniques, such as deuteration combined with FTIR spectroscopy, are being applied for better understanding of the changes in cellulose accessibility.
- Reviewpp 6109-6193Hubbe, M. A., Sundberg, A., Mocchiutti, P., Ni, Y., and Pelton, R. (2012). "Dissolved and colloidal substances (DCS) and the charge demand of papermaking process waters and suspensions: A Review," BioRes. 7(4), 6109-6193.AbstractArticlePDF
Dissolved and colloidal substances (DCS) in the process waters of paper machine systems can interfere with the retention of fine particles, retard the drainage of water from the wet web, and generally hurt the intended functions of various polyelectrolytes that are added to the process. This review considers publications that have attempted to characterize the nature and effects of different DCS fractions, in addition to some of the ways that paper technologists have attempted to overcome related problems. The consequences of DCS in a paper machine system can be traced to their ability to form complexes with various polyelectrolytes. Such tendencies can be understood based on a relatively strong complexing ability of multivalent materials, depending on the macromolecular size and charge density. Continuing research is needed to more fully understand the different contributions to cationic demand in various paper machine systems and to find more efficient means of dealing with DCS.