Linseed oil and shellac are natural, environmentally friendly materials with good water repellency. They were used to impregnate Chinese ash wood at room temperature (20 °C) using a vacuum-pressure procedure (consisting of three cycles of 0.01 MPa for 1.5 h and atmospheric pressure for 1.5 h) to improve the dimensional stability of wood. The effects of the impregnation treatment on wood color changes, dimensional stability, moisture absorption, and morphological characteristics were evaluated. The linseed oil and shellac treatment improved the dimensional stability of wood. Linseed oil and shellac displayed good permeability in Chinese ash wood, with weight gains of 21.7% and 19.0%, respectively, after impregnation. The swelling coefficients of treated wood in the tangential and radial directions decreased by 15 to 22%, indicating that impregnation improved the dimensional stability of wood. Linseed oil and shellac solidified and occluded the pits within the wood interior to prevent moisture absorption. This method can be used to improve the dimensional stability of a variety of wood products, such as buildings, furniture, and landscape architecture.