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Olivella, M. À., Fiol, N., De la Torre, F., Poch, J., and Villaescusa, I. (2012). "A mechanistic approach to methylene blue sorption on two vegetable wastes: Cork bark and grape stalks," BioRes. 7(3), 3340-3354.


Two vegetable wastes, cork bark and grape stalks, were investigated for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The effects of contact time, dye concentration, pH, and temperature on sorption were studied relative to adsorption on a commercially-activated carbon. The highest adsorption yield was obtained within the pH range 5 to 10 for grape stalks and 7 to 10 for cork bark. The sorption kinetics of dye onto activated carbon and grape stalks was very fast. Kinetics data were fitted to the pseudo-first and second order kinetic equations, and the values of the pseudo-second-order initial rate constants were found to be 1.69 mg g-1 min-1 for activated carbon, 2.24 mg g-1 min-1 for grape stalks, and 0.90 mg g-1 min-1 for cork bark. Langmuir maximum sorption capacities for activated carbon, grape stalks, and cork bark for methylene blue estimated by the Orthogonal Distance Regression method (ODR) were 157.5 mg g-1, 105.6 mg g-1, and 30.52 mg g-1, respectively. FTIR spectra indicated that carboxylic groups and lignin play a significant role in the sorption of methylene blue. Electrostatic forces, n-p interactions, cation-p, and p-p stacking interactions contribute to methylene blue sorption onto grape stalks and cork bark. Grape stalks can be considered an efficient biosorbent and as a viable alternative to activated carbon and ion-exchange resins for the removal of methylene blue.
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