This paper reviews the tensile properties of bamboo fiber reinforced polymer composites (BFRP). Environmentally friendly bamboo fibers have good mechanical properties, which make them suitable replacements for conventional fibers, such as glass and carbon, in composite materials. Better fiber and matrix interaction results in good interfacial adhesion between fiber/matrix and fewer voids in the composite. Several important factors improve matrix-fiber bonding and enhance the tensile properties of BFRP. Coupling agents, such as maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP), improve the adhesion of bamboo fibers in the polypropylene (PP) matrix. A high percentage of lignin content in bamboo fibers limits fiber separation, which leads to less matrix absorption between fibers. Steam explosion is the best extraction method for bamboo fibers, although an additional mechanically rubbing process is required for fiber separation. Generally, high fiber content results in good composite performance, but at a certain limit, the matrix does not adhere well with a saturated amount of fibers, and the composite tensile strength decreases. However, the tensile modulus of BFRP is not affected by excess fiber content. Hybridization of bamboo with conventional fibers increases the tensile strength of BFRP. The addition of micro/nano-sized bamboo fibrils into the carbon fabric composites slightly enhances composite strength.