AbstractBioethanol is nowadays one of the main actors in the fuel market. It is currently produced from sugars and starchy materials, but lignocelluloses can be expected to be major feedstocks for ethanol production in the future. Two processes are being developed in parallel for conversion of lignocelluloses to ethanol, “acid-based” and “enzyme-based” processes. The current article is dedicated to review of progress in the “acid-based-hydrolysis” process. This process was used industrially in the 1940s, during wartime, but was not economically competitive afterward. However, intensive research and development on its technology during the last three decades, in addition to the expanding ethanol market, may revive the process in large scale once again. In this paper the ethanol market, the composition of lignocellulosic materials, concentrated- and dilute-acid pretreatment and hydrolysis, plug-flow, percolation, counter-current and shrinking-bed hydrolysis reactors, fermentation of hexoses and pentoses, effects of fermentation inhibitors, downstream processing, wastewater treatment, analytical methods used, and the current commercial status of the acid-based ethanol processes are reviewed.