AbstractCreatinine is one of the major toxins in patients suffering from chronic renal failure. In this paper, cellulose dinitrobenzoate, with a degree of substitution (DS) of 0.15, was used as an oral adsorbent for creatinine adsorption. Cellulose dinitrobenzoate was prepared by modification of cellulose with 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) ionic liquid as a homogenous medium. The effects of contact time, pH, adsorption temperature, and initial concentration of creatinine on the adsorption per unit mass of cellulose dinitrobenzoate were studied, comparatively. Results showed that the maximum adsorption per unit mass for creatinine was 3.88 mg/g. Furthermore, the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. It was determined that the experimental results were well fitted to the pseudo-second-order rate equation and the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Compared with traditional oral adsorbents, this cellulose-based adsorbent was biocompatible and could remove creatinine from dialysate effectively.