AbstractIn the production of paper, especially when using mechanical pulp or recovered wood-containing paper, a large amount of dissolved and colloidal substances (DCS), mainly composed of hemicelluloses, extractives, lignans, and lignin-related substances, are released from the pulp and dissolved or dispersed into the process water. The accumulation of DCS during the papermaking operations due to the closure of process water systems gives rise to various detrimental impacts on the papermaking process and the resulting paper products. Thus it is indispensible to remove or control the DCS in order to overcome or alleviate their negative influences. This review emphasizes recent advances in control of DCS by physical, chemical, and biological methods. The widely used fixatives such as aluminum sulfate, poly-(aluminum chloride), polyamines, polyvinyl amine, and highly cationic starch, as well as their functional effectiveness, mechanism, influencing factors, and influences on paper products are considered. Simultaneously, biological treatments including fungal treatment and enzymatic treatments with lipase, pectinase, laccase, and immobilized enzymes, are also assessed in detail. DCS control has been an important way to improve the runnability of paper machines and the quality of wood-containing paper and recycled paper products. Advances in DCS control are likely to create additional benefits to the papermaking industry in the coming years.