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C. Fellers, B. Westerlind and A. de Ruvo. An investigation of the biaxial failure envelope of paper: experimental study and theoretical analysis. In The role of fundamental research in paper-making, Trans. of the VIIth Fund. Res. Symp. Cambridge, 1981, (Fundamental Research Committee, ed.), pp 527–559, FRC, Manchester, 2018.


In the theoretical part of this paper, the Tsai-Wu tensor theory is used to determine the equation for the biaxial strength envelope of a material.

One great advantage of using the Tsai-Wu theory for investigating biaxial strength envelopes is that it may be transformed to arbitrary co-ordinate axes by means of tensor transformation laws.

In the experimental part of the paper, the strengths in compression and shear are evaluated using thick-walled tubes consisting of two layers of paper glued together with a non-penetrating glue. In addition, the strength of paper under biaxial stress is determined by subjecting paper tubes to axial tension or compression combined with a radial tension caused by internal pressure.

In the final part of the paper, the application of the Tsai-Wu tensor theory to the prediction of failure of a corrugated container is discussed, as well as practical means of limiting the number of experiments necessary to establish the biaxial failure envelope of paper.

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