To improve the utilization rate of pineapple leaf and crop straw, and provide technical support for making biodegradable fiber mulch paper through organic cultivation, the process and properties of the degradable fiber mulch paper made from pineapple leaf and rice straw were studied. The degradable fiber mulch paper was prepared as a hybrid composite in which pineapple leaf fiber and rice straw fiber were used as raw materials, and environmentally friendly agents were added. A four-factor five-level quadratic orthogonal rotation central composite design of the response surface method was employed. The beating degree of pineapple leaf fiber, basis weight, addition ratio of pineapple leaf fiber, and wet strength agent content were process parameters; dry tension strength, wet tension strength, and bursting strength were objective functions. The optimal technology parameters of pineapple leaf and rice straw fiber mulch paper were 70 to 90 g/m2 basis weight of pineapple leaf fiber, 17% to 25% addition ratio of pineapple leaf fiber, 55 °SR beating degree, and 1.5% wet strength agent content. According to the tensile strength and bursting strength standards, the degradable fiber mulch paper made from pineapple leaf and rice straw was feasible. The results provide theoretical basis and technical support to use pineapple leaves and rice straw to make degradable mulch paper.