AbstractResidues of Phyllostachys pubescens bamboo obtained from central Louisiana, USA, were comprehensively investigated for use in liquefaction. The results showed that bamboo branches had the highest Klason lignin and ash content, about 26% and 2.75%, respectively. The epidermis layer sample had relatively higher carbohydrate content, while the wax layer sample had the highest hot water and ethanol-toluene extractives and starch content. The results indicated that the bamboo processing residues showed potential for different chemical feedstocks. No significant differences were found in the infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of the different samples, indicating that the chemical functional groups were the same, despite variation in chemical components between samples. Klason lignin isolated from the residues showed a higher maximum degradation rate temperature (501 °C) and wider degradation temperature range (200 to 550 °C) than the carbohydrates.