AbstractEffects of temperature and press pressure on the anatomical structure of solid-wood panels produced by using Pinus sylvestris L. (Scotch pine) wood were evaluated. Solid wood panels with dimensions of 250 by 500 by 18 mm were hot-pressed using a laboratory hot press at a temperature of either 120°C or 150°C and pressure of either 5 or 7 MPa for 1 h. Microscopic investigations conducted by Light Microscopy (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that the highest deformation occurred in earlywood regions of all growth rings for each process condition and the distribution of deformation was not uniform in growth rings. Cell-wall thickness was observed to be an important factor in wood behavior during thermal compressing processes. The results showed clearly that the impact of pressure in wood structure is promoted by increased temperature. Significant densification was observed at the maximum temperature and maximum pressure condition employed in the study, and almost all earlywood layers showed cell collapse. The study revealed that a homogenous structure of growth rings with the uniform earlywood and latewood widths throughout the wood samples plays a major role in prevention of cell collapse. The results indicated that both process conditions and anatomical structure of the wood have an interaction.