AbstractDue to scarcity of cellulosic wood fibers five bamboo species, namely B. tulda, D. hamiltonii, B. balcooa, M. baccifera, and B. arundinacea, and two eucalyptus species, namely E. tereticornis and E. grandis, were grown under North Indian climatic conditions in order to sustain fiber supply through social forestry. After four years of cultivation, these cellulosic raw materials were evaluated for anatomical structures, fibre dimensions, chemical characterization, and pulp and paper making characteristics. B. balcooa and M. baccifera contained higher holocellulose and α-cellulose contents compared to other bamboo species and lower ash contents, indicating that they are likely to pose less problem during chemical recovery. E. grandis contained higher holocellulose, α-cellulose, and lower lignin contents than that of E. tereticornis. Morphologically, bamboo species did not show much difference in fiber dimensions and their derived values. E. grandis showed problems of kink and curl due to longer fiber length than E. tereticornis. Based on pulp yield, brightness, and pulp viscosity B. balcooa, M. baccifera and E. grandis are better options for social forestry among other species.