The anatomical properties of seven hybrid poplar clones grown in three sites in southern Quebec, Canada were investigated. Radial and longitudinal variations in selected anatomical properties of wood were measured by image analysis of transverse sections and by fiber quality analysis. Results indicate that all measured anatomical properties varied significantly across sites. Clonal variation was highly significant for all anatomical properties studied, and broad-sense heritability ranged from 0.10 (average vessel lumen area) to 0.76 (cell wall area percentage). Genetic gain was positive for all anatomical properties. The variation in radial pattern was characterized by a rapid increase in the first few years in fiber length, width, and proportion, wall thickness, and percent cell wall area. Ray proportion remained constant, whereas the vessel lumen area and proportion decreased with cambial age.