Physical chemical methods were used to treat papermaking white water used to produce plant fiber mulch sheet that contained fine fibers and inorganic fillers as suspended solids. The ordinary chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) was obviously reduced after the papermaking white water was treated by the flocculant. By comparing three different coagulants (aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3), poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC)) and flocculant (poly-acrylamide copolymer (PAM)) to process papermaking white water, it was found that Al2(SO4)3 had the best coagulation effect and the lowest cost. The best flocculation conditions were 2,733 mg/L of Al2(SO4)3 and 4.52 mg/L of PAM to treat the papermaking white water. Under the best flocculation conditions, the CODCr was less than 300 mg/L. The goal of closed recycling and zero discharge of white water in the production process of plant fiber mulch sheet was realized.