AbstractHenan is the main agricultural province in China and is the top producer of wheat, representing 25% of the national wheat output. Henan has been the top province in terms of total food crop production since 2000. So, agricultural residue resources, which could provide material for future social and economic development, are abundant in Henan. But the province is facing critical problems from burning agricultural residues. Both efficient use and environmental protection of the resources are beginning to receive more attention. This study assessed the agricultural residue resources available for utilization and examined recent development targets in Henan. Agricultural residues were estimated for the base year 2009. Approximately 59.12 million tonnes of agricultural residues were consumed in various ways, and the average percentage of agricultural residue utilization was 70.07%. Agricultural residue is mainly used as a fertilizer, an energy source, industrial material, forage, and as feedstock for edible fungi. Short-term targets were provided for the development of suitable uses for agricultural residues through several demonstration projects, which will help to increase the efficient use of agricultural residue in Henan, China.