AbstractFour fast-growing wood species were treated, including two hardwood species and two softwood species, with either furfurylation or acetylation for comparison and analysis. The properties of the resultant woods, including weight percent gain, bulking effect, leach rate, anti-swelling efficiency (ASE), and color changes, were compared comprehensively. The effects of wood species on modification efficiency were also evaluated by morphological analysis. The results indicated that the species of wood had little effect on successful acetylation, but that wood species with more open pits and loose and ordered structures were best suited for furfurylation. Both types of modification resulted in wood samples with more uniform colors than untreated samples. Furfurylation caused considerable color changes in all of the wood samples; acetylation resulted in wood samples slightly lighter in color (lower ΔE* values). The differences in ΔE* values among the four wood species were primarily due to the natural differences in the color of the woods.