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S. Schmidt. Attempts to produce a three-dimensional paper structure. In The Fundamental Properties of Paper Related to its Uses, Trans. of the Vth Fund. Res. Symp. Cambridge, 1973, (F. Bolam, ed.), pp 148–150, FRC, Manchester, 2018.


MR RADVAN mentioned (in the section on page 145 of attempts to produce a three-dimensional paper structure) several different approaches to the attempts at orienting the fibres in the Z-direction with the claim of increasing the bulk. As he also mentioned, this is of the greatest interest in the production of wet-laid non-wovens.

In addition to the method of upending some of the fibres, especially the short fibres and enmeshing them vertically in the web, a further method has been discovered. ⁽¹⁾ This uses crimped synthetic short-cut fibres in such a way that only a section of a fibre is located in the Z-direction and it is not necessary therefore to upend a complete fibre. Furthermore, this does not involve any after-treatment.

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