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B. Steenberg. Beating and the mechanical properties of paper. In Fundamentals of Papermaking Fibres, Trans. of the Ist Fund. Res. Symp. Cambridge, 1957, (F. Bolam, ed.), pp 229–240, FRC, Manchester, 2018.


A survey of existing standard and suggested methods of paper testing shows the need of increasing the battery of testing methods to enable a more thorough theoretical analysis of the influence of beating on mechanical properties of paper to be made. This statement is exemplified among others by a comparison of the vast quantity of scientific work on beating carried out using the Mullen tester and the small amount of new information reached over a period of years.

Only by using methods sufficiently well defined to allow physical interpretation either alone or in combination with other tests can a comprehensible theory of the influence of beating on paper properties be expected.

The problem of studying beating is complicated by the fact that there seems to be no method by which all fibres in a sample can be treated in the same way.

Fibre length determinations as a measure of beating have limitations. The important property of fibre flexibility ought to be made the subject of closer study and a possible way of carrying out such studies is indicated.

The need to study the stress distribution in paper under different conditions in order to understand its behaviour and the influence of its composition is stressed.

The problem is in all probability so complicated that any valuable theory must be supposed to include a number of independent factors.

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