AbstractFive kinds of commercially available wood-based composites (softwood plywood, hardwood plywood, medium density fiberboard, oriented strand board, and particle board, hereinafter abbreviated as SWP, HWP, MDF, OSB, and PB, respectively) post-treated with alkaline copper quat (ACQ) and copper azole (CA) were exposed to decay and subterranean termite activity under protected above-ground conditions in a southern Japan field test site for three years. Variables examined included comparisons of untreated and treated wood-based composites, preservative type, and retention levels. Both biological attacks developed with time. Termite damage started earlier, and the severity of attack was higher than decay fungi. Untreated MDF and PB were highly resistant to field conditions during the 36 months. Untreated OSB, HWP, and SWP were the least resistant composite types. ACQ and CA treatments significantly improved the durability of the wood-based composites resulting in 64.4%, 47.9%, and 22.5% higher termite ratings when compared to their untreated controls for OSB, HWP, and SWP, respectively. Preservative types and increased retentions did not significantly affect the decay and termite ratings. These results suggest that ACQ and CA post-treatments at exterior protected and unprotected (K3) and double K3 retention levels significantly improved durability of wood-based composites tested but failed to provide full protection.