NC State
BioResources
Naylor, A. (2014). "Can wood be used as a bio-mechanical substitute for bone during evaluation of surgical machining tools?" BioRes. 9(4), 5778-5781.

Abstract

It is often not possible to machine human or animal tissue, such as bone, in a typical engineering workshop due to the numerous health risks associated. Further to this, currently used synthetic substitutes are also unsuitable for machining. This is mainly due to the aerosolization of harmful particles created during the machining process. It is however essential to thoroughly test and evaluate emerging orthopedic cutting tool designs, particularly when considering that osteonecrosis occurs at as low as 47 °C cutting temperature. It is proposed here that a composite bone model can be constructed using a dense hardwood to represent the hard cortical bone outer shell, and a less dense softwood to represent the spongy cancellous bone interior.
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