NC State
Sloup, R., Hušbauer, J., Jarský, V., Riedl, M., and Šišák, L. (2019). "Case study comparing the efficiency of wooden buildings with different energy standards," BioRes. 14(2). 4236-4253.


This study compares the economic efficiency of wooden buildings from standard to low-energy, near-passive, and zero-energy homes. The comparison was carried out over the entire expected life cycle of the building (100 years), but due to the high uncertainty of the predictions of fuel and energy prices or discount rates and the clarity of the depiction of the subsequent results, a period of 30 years was also chosen. The most common and most suitable media and combinations for heating (gas, electricity, and wood) were selected. When calculating the entire life cycle of a building, it was found that the more stringent the energy standard, the lower the overall life cycle costs, and the share of heating costs also decreases with the highest costs being electricity heating alternatives. Adversely, the lowest costs were for the fictitious zero-energy home (ZEN) alternative with net metering followed, by some distance, by near zero-energy home alternatives and passive homes. With the chosen period of 30 years, initially after construction, it was shown that the cost is lowest to heat a standard home with gas, which is used by more than 60% of family homes for heating in the Czech Republic.

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