To ascertain the applicability of the isoamyl nitrite-assisted sulfanilic acid sulfonation method, a series of carbon precursors (sucrose-derived disordered mesoporous carbon, ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3, glucose-based hydrothermal carbon, and activated carbon) were utilized in attempts to synthesize carbon-based solid acids. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis (EA), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD) were applied to characterize the catalysts. The carbon-based solid acids were applied in the dehydration of xylose and corn stover to evaluate their catalytic performance. Sucrose-derived disordered mesoporous carbon (C-CCA) and ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 were successfully sulfonated by isoamyl nitrite-assisted sulfonation, while glucose-based hydrothermal carbon (HGC) and activated carbon (AC) were unsuccessful. Compared with ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 solid acid (S-CMK-3), sucrose-derived disordered mesoporous carbon solid acid (ISC-CCA) showed better performance for the production of furfural. The reusability of ISC-CCA for furfural production from xylose during 5 runs was favorable. Using pure water and ISC-CCA as a solvent and catalyst, from corn stover, achieved a furfural yield of 43.1% at 190 °C in 4 h.