AbstractCellulose has a complex, multi-level supermolecular architecture. This natural polymer is built from superfine fibrils having diameters in the nano scale, and each such nanofibril contains ordered nanocrystallites and low-ordered nano-domains. In this review, the nano-structure of cellulose and its influence on various properties of the polymer is discussed. In particular, the ability of nano-scale crystallites to undergo lateral co-crystallization and aggregation, as well as to undergo phase transformation through dissolution, alkalization, and chemical modification of cellulose has been the subject of investigation. The recent investigations pave the way for development of highly reactive cellulosic materials. Methods for preparation nanofibrillated cellulose and free nano-particles are described. Some application areas of the nanostruc-tured and nano-cellulose are discussed.