AbstractIn this work, the effect of oil heat treatment (OHT) on the swelling properties and changes in the rate of moisture uptake of poplar wood (Populus × euramericana cv. Pannónia) were investigated. Eighteen different treatments (combinations of three vegetable oils, two temperatures, and three durations) were studied. The results showed that OHT decreases the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) and the swelling of poplar wood. The degree of swelling and the EMC are influenced by both the duration and temperature of treatment. With an increase in duration and temperature, the EMC decreased. Consequently, the anti-swelling efficiency (ASE) increased. OHT wood adsorbs less moisture than natural wood, but it reaches a maximum – EMC at the momentary climate – at the same time under all the investigated treatments. The moisture uptake is fastest in the beginning and thereafter it slows significantly. Decreasing the moisture uptake by OHT wood is due to the decreasing of its water storage capacity.