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E.L. Graminski. Characterisation of pulps manufactured from waste paper. In Fibre-Water Interactions in Paper-Making, Trans. of the VIth Fund. Res. Symp. Oxford, 1977, (Fundamental Research Committee, ed.), pp 921–931, FRC, Manchester, 2018.


The conclusions of many studies on material policy emphasise the need for materials conservation and more efficient utilisation of materials. Recycling of municipal waste is an alternative to solid waste disposal and a means for conserving our natural resources. Although the benefits from recycling are many, there are technological and economic barriers to large scale recycling in the private sector. Unless these uncertainties are removed, increased recycling will occur only when no other alternatives exist.

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