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Pérez, J. M., Rodríguez, F., Alonso, M. V., Oliet, M., and Echeverría, J. M. (2007). "Characterization of a novolac resin substituting phenol by ammonium lignosulfonate as filler or extender," BioRes. 2(2), 270-283.


In this work two types of lignin-novolac resins have been formulated, partially substituting phenol by softwood ammonium lignosulfonate as filler or extender (methylolated) to study the viability of that substitution when resins will be employed as adhesives in textile felts. A commercial novolac resin was used as reference. Free phenol, free formaldehyde, water content, softening point, and flow distance values were determined in all cases to verify whether the material fulfills specifications. In addition, FTIR and NMR spectroscopic techniques were employed for the characterization of three resins samples tested to discuss their structural differences and similarities. The results obtained have shown that the substitution proposed is feasible from the point of view of the resins synthesis to get the pre-polymer.
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