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BioResources
Darmawan, S., Wistara, N. J., Pari, G., Maddu, A., and Syafii, W. (2016). "Characterization of lignocellulosic biomass as raw material for the production of porous carbon-based materials," BioRes. 11(2), 3561-3574.

Abstract

Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential raw material that can be used in the synthesis (manufacture) of porous carbon stuffs. The properties of such porous carbon products are affected by the species of the raw material and the manufacturing process, among other things. This paper scrutinizes the related characteristics of lignocellulosic raw materials that indicate potential for the production of porous carbon. Three species were used: pine (Pinusmerkusii) wood, mangium (Acacia mangium) wood, and candlenut (Aleuritesmoluccana) shells, representing softwoods, hardwoods, and non-wood stuffs, respectively. Analyses of their chemical compounds and proximate contents were carried out. Additionally, nano scale scrutiny of the lignocellulosic biomass was also conducted using the nano capable instruments, which consisted of SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR, and DSC. Results revealed that pine wood had the most potential to produce porous carbon. Morphologically, pine wood afforded the best permeability, whereby at the structure of monoclinic cellulose crystals, there were cellulose-Ia structures, which contained less cellulose-Ib structures. Furthermore, pine wood exhibited greater volatile matter content, as confirmed through the FTIR, which greatly assisted the forming of porosity inside its corresponding carbon.
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