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Shahid, S. A., Ali, M., and Zafar, Z. I. (2014). "Characterization of phenol-formaldehyde resins modified with crude bio-oil prepared from Ziziphus mauritiana endocarps," BioRes. 9(3), 5362-5384.

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of bio-oil incorporation on properties of bio-oil-phenol formaldehyde (BPF) resol resins along with the optimization of petro-phenol substitution level. Crude bio-oil prepared from endocarp shells of Ziziphus mauritiana by direct solvolytic liquefaction (ethanol-water 1:1 wt./wt. at 300 °C) was used to partially substitute the petro-phenol (30% to 75% wt./wt.) in the resin synthesis. The modified resins were subjected to measurement of various properties, including molecular weight, pH, viscosity, density, gel/cure time, non-volatile solid content, and limiting oxygen index. Bonding performance of the BPF resins was evaluated by measuring the mechanical and hygroscopic properties of the particle boards developed using such resins. With the incorporation of bio-oil, the viscosity and molecular weight of the BPF resins increased, while the values of pH, density, non-volatile solid content, and limiting oxygen index decreased. The gel, cure, and bonding tests revealed that with the addition of more than 45% bio-oil, the gel/cure times of the BPF resins increased, while the bonding performance decreased. Petro-phenol could therefore be substituted by crude bio-oil up to 45% wt./wt. safely.
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