NC State
BioResources
Abdul Khalil, H. P. S., Rus Mahayuni, A. R., Bhat, I.-u.-H., Rudi, D., Almulali, M. Z., and Abdullah, C. K. (2012). "Characterization of various organic waste nanofillers obtained from oil palm ash," BioRes. 7(4), 5771-5780.

Abstract

The byproducts of palm oil production (nut shells, fibers, and EFB) were combusted to obtain organic waste nanofillers. The prepared nano-filler was characterized by different techniques, viz. XRD for degree of crystallinity, particle size, morphology, and spectroscopic methods. The average diameter found was between 93.39 and 192.20 nm, and the width was between 18.17 and 43.45 nm. The SEM images revealed various morphological arrangements of particles. XRD studies exhibited crystalline nature of both the raw and ground nanofillers. The elemental analysis of nanofillers was carried out by EDX, and FT-IR was used to assign the degree of stretching of various functional groups. In addition to C, N, and O, elemental analysis revealed the presence of Al, Mg, Si, P, K, Ca, Fe, S, Ti, and Mn.
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