Material alternatives to wood, such as rape straw, are needed for the production of composite materials. This study performed an analysis of rape straw as a composite material source for production. There were three types of rape straw particle modification: untreated particles as reference variant, boiling in water, and soaking in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The pH and calorific value were highest for the variant soaked in NaOH. The total elemental content and the elements on the rape straw surface varied between variants. The modification method chosen influenced the pH, calorific value, elemental composition, and contact angle.