AbstractCinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl. is one of the most important hardwood species indigenous to China that possesses signiﬁcant antifungal activity. The chemical composition of the extracts from the xylem parts of C. camphora was examined by various solvent extractions. Thirty different components accounting for 79.8% of the total methanol extracts from the xylem of C. camphora were identiﬁed by gas chromatography-mass (GC/MS) spectrometry. The major chemical components of methanol extracts are camphor (14.3%), α-terpineol (9.9%), and trans-linalool oxide (furanoid) (7.7%). The chemical composition of chloroform extracts are mainly camphor (17.6%), α-terpineol (11.8%), tetradecanal (5.6%), and (-)-g-cadinene (7.4%). The extracts of C. camphora were tested for resistance to two wood-decaying fungus with hyphal growth. All the C. camphora extracts showed some antifungal activity against the test fungus. The 50% effective concentration of chloroform extracts for Coriolus versicolor(C. versicolor) was 7.8 mg/mL, which was highly toxic, followed by acetone extracts. The methanol extracts with 8 mg/mL concentration had the best suppression effect for Gloeophyllum trabeum (G. trabeum) with an EC50 of 0.3 mg/mL. The results indicated that the major components of the extracts had antifungal activities; thus C. camphora could provide a renewable source for wood preservatives.